vector borne diseases
What is malaria?
Malaria is a protozoal disease caused by Plasmodium and transmitted by the female anopheles mosquito. Malaria is a common public health problem in India. Among the many species of Plasmodium, Plasmodium vivax and Falciparum, and others are common main causes of Malaria in India. According to the National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme (NVBDCP), in 2015, 11.2 lakh cases of Malaria were reported with 7.6 lakh Falciparum cases and 287 deaths
what is filaria disease?
Lymphatic Filariasis, commonly known as Filaria is caused by 3 nematode parasites– Wucheria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia Timor. Only Wucheria bancrofti and Brugia malayi are found in India. Predominantly, Wucheria bancrofti spread by Culex mosquito causes– 99.4 % of the Filariasis in India. Brugia malayi infection has been reported earlier from some rural areas in seven States viz., Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, and West Bengal, but now it is restricted to rural areas of Kerala. Brugia Malayi is spread through the Mansonia mosquito. Filariasis affects 120 million people worldwide, with India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Bangladesh alone contributing to about 70% of the infection worldwide. Indigenous lymphatic filariasis cases are reported from 20 States/UTs namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Puducherry, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep and Dadra & Nagar Haveli. From these States/UTs, a total of 250 districts have been identified to be endemic to filariasis with a population of about 600 million at risk.
what is Kala-Azar?
Kala-azar or Indian Leishmaniasis is caused by the parasite – Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Sandfly (Phlebotomus argentipes). In 2015, 8500 cases were reported with 5 deaths in India.
what is Japanese Encephalitis?
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 70,000 cases reported annually, caused by the Japanese Encephalitis virus. The disease is transmitted by the culex mosquito. Japanese Encephalitis is widespread in India, its annual incidence ranges between 1714–6594, with 367– 1665 deaths.
what is dengue?
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus. This is the same mosquito that transmits chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika infection.There are 4 distinct, but closely related, serotypes of the virus that cause
what is chikungunya?
Chikungunya disease is a viral disease transmitted in humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Two types of Aedes species are implicated in causing this disease, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti mosquito (which you must be familiar with from the yellow fever section) is the primary transmission agent of the Chikungunya Virus in the Indian subcontinent. In 2015, a total of 27,553 cases of Chikungunya were reported in our country.